Forward I look, and backward, and below I count, as god of avenues and gates, The years that through my portals come and go.

Here we are, and it’s January again.

 Janus am I; oldest of potentates;   Forward I look, and backward, and below I count, as god of avenues and gates,   The years that through my portals come and go.

I block the roads, and drift the fields with snow;
I chase the wild-fowl from the frozen fen;
My frosts congeal the rivers in their flow,
My fires light up the hearths and hearts of men. *

The Under Gardener's Lodge Jan 2015

The Under Gardener’s Lodge Jan 2015

The month of Janus
Middle English Januarie
Latin Januariusof Janus
Latin Janu(s) “Janus” + –arius “ary (pertaining to)”
Latin Januarius mensismonth of Janus

Two-headed Janus, who sees forward and backward, a personification of the month of January; Romanesque high-relief stone sculpture, in the Museo del Duomo, Ferrara, Italy.

Two-headed Janus, who sees forward and backward, a personification of the month of January; Romanesque high-relief stone sculpture, in the Museo del Duomo, Ferrara, Italy.

Janus is a Roman God, though the Romans also saw him as having Thessalian origins and they believed him to be one of the original gods of the aboriginal people of Italy[ possibly the Etruscans ]

pre roman etruscian

Etruscan, Sarcophagus of a Married Couple, from the Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, ca. 530-520 B.C., painted terra-cotta. Musée du Louvre, Paris

They believed him to be the God of ‘gates and doorways’, of ‘endings and beginnings’.

Roman wall painting in the Villa Boscoreale Italy 1st century

Roman wall painting in the Villa Boscoreale Italy 1st century

Prayers and sacrifices were made to him at the beginning of every day, every month as well as every year.

doorway_tempio_romolo

His very name derives from the Latin word for door, that is ianua, and as it is the first month of the year within both the Julian and Gregorian Calendars , her and his name sake are seen as that door to the new year, and of course to the past year.
He, like us, stands in a liminal space in this month between one year and the next.

Between and betwixt what has passed and what is to come. One could say he is the original Marty McFly in ‘Back to the Future…’

It is said that Janus was given the gift of seeing the past and being able to see the future by the God Saturn/ Kronus– the God of time itself.

cronus as saturn

That he was the son of Apollo, who every morning assisted Aurora, the Goddess of the Dawn, by driving cross the sky in his chariot of fire.

Aurora by Guido Reni, 1613-14

Aurora by Guido Reni, 1613-14

Macrobius says

… Some claim that Janus is shown to be the sun and has his two-fold nature because both heavenly doorways are in his power, as he opens the day by rising and closes it by setting; and further that when some god’s rite is being celebrated, he is called upon first so that he might open the way to the god to whom the sacrifice is being made, as though sending suppliants’ prayers on to the gods through his own gateways. Hence, too, his likeness is commonly represented keeping the number 300 in its right hand and 65 in its left, to indicate the measure of the year, which is the sun’s chief function… ” (Saturnalia, Book 1, 9.9-9.10, trans. Kaster, Loeb Classical Library)

Hermes by Giovanni da Bologna:

Hermes by Giovanni da Bologna:

As Janus was the God of gateways, and openings, and of the liminal it has also been suggested that he is similar way to Mercury or Hermes, that is as a ‘daemonic entity’ and that he would carry messages from the mundane to the divine.

Hermes, messenger of the gods | Athenian red figure lekythos C5th B.C. | Metropolitan Museum

Hermes, messenger of the gods | Athenian red figure lekythos C5th B.C. | Metropolitan Museum

[S]he held the key to heaven and therefore seen as a doorway and having access or being a way of accessing the Gods[1].

Athens, Parthenon. east frieze. Artemis (447-432 B.C.)

Athens, Parthenon. east frieze. Artemis (447-432 B.C.)

Macrobius also likened Janus to Diana – who’s was the sister of Apollo, – and therefore also to Hekate and Artemis

Hekate (or Artemis) is here depicted crowned and holding a pair of burning torches.

Hekate (or Artemis) is here depicted crowned and holding a pair of burning torches.

 

As Janus has many of the epithets of both Gods and Goddess, as mentioned above, some images show  a duality of gender, with faces of both male and female.

janus.26

Ovid writes about him in his work, Fasti , dedicated to Germanicus ,

[ or as we more commonly call him , Julius Caesar].

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar

The book is a collection of poems based upon the Roman Calendar .
Book 1 is January, Metamorphoses, 

‘Then suddenly, sacred and marvellous, Janus,
In two-headed form, showed his twin faces to my eyes.

Holding his stick in his right hand, his key in the left,
He spoke these words to me from his forward looking face:

The ancients called me Chaos (since I am of the first world):
Note the long ages past of which I shall tell.
The clear air, and the three other elements,
Fire, water, earth, were heaped together as one.
When, through the discord of its components,
The mass dissolved, and scattered to new regions,
Flame found the heights: air took a lower place,
While earth and sea sank to the furthest depth.
Then I, who was a shapeless mass, a ball,
Took on the appearance, and noble limbs of a god.
Even now, a small sign of my once confused state,
My front and back appear just the same.’

Janus is linked with Chaos (F. 1.103), and in Tristia, where it is implied by the geminae frontes (“twin faces/ends”) of Ovid’s book-roll, Tr. 1.1.11). Janus says, omina principiis… inesse solent (“beginnings are often omens,” F. 1.178).

Ovid also mentions Janus in connection to Hekate

Ovid
Fasti
Book I: January 1: Kalends

Listen to the other reason for the shape you query,
So you know of it, and know of my duties too.
Whatever you see: sky, sea, clouds, earth,
All things are begun and ended by my hand.
Care of the vast world is in my hands alone,
And mine the governance of the turning pole.
When I choose to send Peace, from tranquil houses,
Freely she walks the roads, and ceaselessly:
The whole world would drown in bloodstained slaughter,
If rigid barriers failed to hold war in check.
I sit at Heaven’s Gate with the gentle Hours,
Jupiter himself comes and goes at my discretion.

Every doorway has two sides, this way and that,
One facing the crowds, and the other the Lares:
And like your doorkeeper seated at the threshold,
Who watches who goes and out and who goes in,
So I the doorkeeper of the heavenly court,
Look towards both east and west at once.
You see Hecate’s faces turned in three directions,
To guard the crossroads branching several ways:
And I, lest I lose time twisting my neck around,
Am free to look both ways without moving.’

 William Blake The Night of Enitharmon’s Joy (formerly called ‘Hecate’) c.1795


William Blake The Night of Enitharmon’s Joy (formerly called ‘Hecate’) c.1795

fasti praenestini

fasti praenestini

 If you are interested you can find more about Fasti here

So we are in good company when we stand at the doorway with Janus.
Yule/Christmas has passed and all that is left is the pile of paper from the feverish wrapped delights, empty bottle from the night[s] before, more inches on our waste line and all that we have to look forward to is usually the coldest and darkest of time of the year.

90_04_38---Discarded-Christmas-Wrapping-Paper_webIt’s no surprise that TV advertisers at this time start to fill our screens with images of summer holidays, while the diet and cosmetic industry try to get us buy in [once again] to their promises of Eternal Youth.

fountain-of-eternal-youth

Yet for our not so distant ancestors, here in the northern hemisphere it was a time for ‘bucking down’, and time of getting through, of surviving. Yule/Christmas had passed and while the promise of life, the sun/son had been reborn, , they knew the following weeks would be very hard .

January is seen as the 2nd month of winter and is usually the the coldest month of the year. Brrrrrrrrr  Like the image below shows,  what most of want to do, is keep warm, and stay by the fire.  Sadly modern day life won’t let us. And I like many go to work in the dark and come home in the dark.  It’s not surprising that many people suffer from ‘SAD’

medieval calendar created for Queen Isabella of Castile [1451-1504]

Medieval calendar created for Queen Isabella of Castile (1451 – 1504). A breviary is a book of prayers, hymns, and other readings designed to be read daily in accordance with the canonical hours. This magnificent example was produced in the late 1480s in Bruges, with illustrations by a number of prominent artists of the time – See more at: http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2011/01/a-calendar-page-for-january.html#sthash.e8vD7Reu.dpuf

Our Anglo- Saxon ancestors ’s called it Wulf-monath (meaning wolf month), for good reason. The scarcity of food meant that the wolves became hungry enough to bold enough to come into the villages.

So as I/we stand here, at the door way, looking forward into the darkness, knowing that there will be hardships, but also still able to look back at the past year. I/We see our triumphs, our challenges, those worries which at the time that seems insurmountable have passed into small molehills.

I/We see the harvest of our actions, our hopes, dreams and expectations, for some it is fulfilment, for other it could be famine.

I/We can look back and see where things have changed and where there is a need to change.

I/We can see the road we have travelled on; all of it glories, beauties, splendours, all of its moments of love, laughter, joy – but I/we can also see its tragedies, the adversities, missed chances and downright sorrow and pain; the hopes and dreams and those moments of utter despair.

androgine_janus

Yet January/ Janus gives us hope to walk through that door, and while we walk, still in darkness, [s]he offers up hope. [S]he holds a key to the future [sound familiar to anyone].

as king and queen of the two opposite portals  opening to the inner and outer worlds

[S]he offers us endings, we are able to close the door if we need to, and start again. We can make changes if we want, we can take a new path. [S]he offers us new beginnings, a fresh page, new hopes and dreams and aspirations.

rebis_2

We can choose to leave the door ever open, and to look back, sometimes, with joy and sometimes with sorrow. We may have made wonderful memories, shared movement of ecstasy, made new friends, new loves, as well as experienced the deepest of pain.  But while that door is open, so are the ties to it. Always looking back.

What I find more hopeful is that we can close the door, we can carry all that and those with us if we wish, [as [s]he carries his staff] or we can lay them down, leave that which we do not wish to carry forward behind us, and behind that door.

How Magical is that?

green roman door

[S]he holds the key to new beginnings, new adventures, and a new chapter in our lives, we can continue to look backward, or walk forward.

FREE_STOCK__Key_1_by_mmp_stock

[S]he can lead us down and through those passages, and out the other side. We can see the future, we can move forward or we can remain in the darkness, remain in the shadow, in the cold and in fear – awaiting the wolves to come and eat us up!

 

 

 

*The Poet’s Calendar by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

[1] Manual of Classical Literature, By Johann Joachim Eschenburg

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About Keeper of the Keys

I'm a 50 plus [ how time flies] multifaceted, oxymoron, who can never really make her mind up. A Witch, a Follow of the Goddess, a Medium, ( I'll talk to anyone dead or alive), a 'wanna be' Writer, a disorganised Blogger, Cake Baker, Jam Maker, Trainee Patchwork-er and Keeper of the Keys for The Under Gardener's Lodge. Mother Grandmother and Wife. I'm fascinated and excited by many things, and therefore could be called eclectic or even eccentric, though some have not been that polite. I live in this Beautiful Magical Lodge with my husband Lou, our rather large dog, Shea and a few other previous residents, who come and go. And like many women of a certain age - I like purple [ and some how pink!] rather a lot!
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One Response to Forward I look, and backward, and below I count, as god of avenues and gates, The years that through my portals come and go.

  1. Check out the artefact known as the ‘Corleck Head’ from Ireland… although it has three faces, you can only ever see two at any one time! There are other similar sculptures from Britain and France, dating to the ‘Celtic’ Iron Age.

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